2180 112th CONGRESS
H. R. 2180
To authorize assistance for affordable housing
and sustainable urban development in developing countries, and for other purposes.IN
THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
June 14, 2011
MILLER of North Carolina (for himself, Mr. PRICE of North Carolina, Ms. MOORE,
Mr. MCNERNEY, Mr. JACKSON of Illinois, Mr. ELLISON, Mr. BLUMENAUER, and Mr. HONDA)
introduced the following bill; which was referred to the Committee on Foreign
To authorize assistance
for affordable housing and sustainable urban development in developing countries,
and for other purposes.
Be it enacted by the Senate
and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,
1. SHORT TITLE.
This Act may be cited as the `Shelter, Land, and
Urban Management (SLUM) Assistance Act of 2011'.
SEC. 2. FINDINGS.
Congress makes the following findings:
(1) Approximately 51
percent of the world's population currently lives in cities of all sizes and produces
the majority of the world's economic output.
one billion people currently live in slums, and more than half of this population
is under the age of 25.
(3) It is estimated that by 2030
the number of people living in slums will double.
Slums are characterized by inadequate access to safe water, sanitation, and other
essential infrastructure, overcrowding, poorly structured housing, and insecure
residential and property ownership status.
percent of all disease is caused by unsafe drinking water, inadequate sanitation,
and poor hygiene and almost 50 percent of all people in developing countries suffer
health problems caused by water and sanitation deficits.
(6) Over 1.1 billion people lack adequate access to safe water and nearly 2.5
billion lack access to sanitation services.
(7) The costs
of diseases and productivity losses linked to water and sanitation in less developed
countries amount to two percent of gross domestic product and up to five percent
in sub-Saharan Africa.
(8) Insecure lease and real property
ownership tenure often subject slum dwellers to arbitrary, often supra-market
rents, forced evictions, threats, and harassment.
In 2007, approximately five million people were subject to forced evictions, and
projections show that the number of forced evictions are likely to increase to
between 40 million and 70 million in the next 20 years.
(10) Insecurity of tenure severely inhibits economic development by undermining
investment incentives and constraining the growth of credit markets, imperils
the ability of families to achieve sustainable livelihoods and assured access
to shelter, and often contributes to conflict over property rights.
(11) Women make up 66 percent of the world's work force, but own less than 15
percent of the property globally.
(12) Women are affected
disproportionally by forced evictions and insecure tenure as a result of gender
discrimination, often including gender-biased laws that define women as legal
minors or otherwise prevent them from acquiring and securing land, property, and
housing lease or ownership rights, making them more vulnerable to poverty, violence,
and sexual abuse.
(13) Adequate housing and universal
access to basic shelter serve as catalysts for social and democratic development.
(14) The 2006 National Security Strategy states, `America's national interests
and moral values drive us in the same direction: to assist the world's poor citizens
and least developed nations and help integrate them into the global economy.'.
(15) Goal 7 Target 11 of the Millennium Development Goals sets the target that
`By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least
100 million slum-dwellers.'.
(16) The United States formerly
provided significant levels of overseas development assistance for shelter and
affordable housing, but in recent years this amount has declined.
3. STATEMENT OF POLICY.
It should be the policy of the United
(1) to establish and implement, as a major objective
of United States overseas development assistance strategy, particularly in developing
countries, programs that foster improved urban management, that foster sustainable
urban development, that increase the security of real property tenure, and that
expand access to basic shelter, affordable urban housing, and essential urban
services and infrastructure, particularly by the poor and others who lack such
access in whole or in part;
(2) to allocate increased
levels of United States bilateral assistance for programs described in paragraph
(3) in order to prevent waste and duplication
in the use of United States overseas development assistance with respect to the
programs described in paragraph (1) and in order to foster cooperative relations
with foreign governments, intergovernmental organizations, and private business
and nonprofit entities that singly or jointly support or implement programs similar
to those described in paragraph (1), to seek and actively support innovative international
mechanisms designed to increase coordination and mutual complementarity in the
planning, financing, and implementation of sustainable urban development policies
and programs implemented by the United States and other donors described in this
SEC. 4. ASSISTANCE TO PROVIDE AFFORDABLE HOUSING
AND SUSTAINABLE URBAN DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.
Purposes of Assistance- The purposes of assistance under this section are to--
(1) support economically and environmentally sustainable and administratively
feasible urban socioeconomic growth, development, and poverty reduction efforts
and to produce improved health and other basic quality of life indicators for
residents of slums, other densely populated, impoverished urban areas, and urban
areas experiencing rapid population growth in developing countries, including
(A) access to basic shelter and affordable
housing, particularly by residents of slums and similar densely populated, impoverished
(B) affordable and equitable access
to safe water, sanitation, and solid waste removal services, and shared communal
infrastructure, such as sidewalks, roads, public lighting;
(C) access to and security of land and other real property use, lease, and ownership
rights and legal recognition and protections thereof by all income groups, including
by supporting efforts to enhance the effectiveness of transaction and dispute
resolution systems, equitable and sustainable national land policies, and enhanced
land administration services; and
for efforts to enhance the capacity of developing country governments, including
regional and municipal governments, to plan and manage urban growth in an operationally
and financially effective and transparent, participatory, and accountable manner,
to pursue policy reforms that foster such objectives, and to provide urban services
and infrastructure, such as basic water and sanitation, transport, solid waste
removal, and electrical power service delivery, including in impoverished urban
(2) achieve the objectives described
in paragraph (1) by--
(A) promoting the growth of
functional, commercially oriented housing markets in target countries and expanding
access to individual and institutional investment capital and financing for housing
and municipal infrastructure, including by public-private partnerships, municipal
bonds, micro-credit financing, and strengthening national and regional public
or private institutions involved in the regulation or provision of finance of
(B) supporting institutional,
procedural, and legal reforms that seek to enhance the rights and access to shelter,
urban infrastructure and services, and property ownership and lease rights of
groups that are socioeconomically vulnerable or marginalized, or subject to discrimination,
including women, children, the poor, and people living in urban slums and informal
(C) prioritizing support for cross-sectoral,
multi-purpose projects that simultaneously advance one or more of the objectives
described in subparagraphs (A) and (B); and
(D) promoting partnerships between the public and private sectors and community-based
organizations to plan and implement projects described in subparagraph (C).
(b) Authorization of Assistance- To carry out the purposes of subsection (a),
the President is authorized--
(1) to furnish technical assistance
and financial support to developing countries, to include, as appropriate, diverse
means of support, including technical or financial assistance to public-private
partnerships, grants, direct loans, seed credit, contracted technical services,
investment insurance, loan guarantees, and other forms of assistance;
(2) to carry out paragraph (1) during fiscal year 2012 through the use of existing
United States Government programs, implementing authorities, and organizations,
(A) specialized organizational units
of the United States Agency for International Development, including the Urban
Programs Team (EGAT/PR/UP), the Development Credit Authority (EGAT/DC/DCA), the
Land Resources Management Team (EGAT/NRM/LRM), the Water Team (EGAT/NRM/W), the
Office of Infrastructure and Engineering (EGAT/IE), and the Engineering Services
(B) the Millennium Challenge
Corporation (MCC); and
(C) other United States
Government agencies with relevant technical expertise or policy mandates pertaining
to urban development and housing in foreign countries; and
(3) to strengthen and enhance the operational capabilities and capacities of United
States Government programs, implementing authorities, and organizations described
in subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) of paragraph (2) in furtherance of the purposes
and objectives described in subsection (a)(1), including efforts to increase their
manpower, diversity of expertise, and levels of funding, and to enhance their
ability to jointly coordinate and collaborate in carrying out such purposes and
SEC. 5. AFFORDABLE HOUSING AND SUSTAINABLE URBAN
(a) Strategy- The President, acting through
the Secretary of State and the Administrator of the United States Agency for International
Development, shall develop a strategy to provide affordable housing and sustainable
urban development in developing countries.
(b) Consultation- The
strategy required by subsection (a) shall be developed in part through a process
of consultation between the Administrator of the United States Agency for International
Development and the heads of units of such Agency and other United States Government
agencies with relevant technical expertise or policy mandates pertaining to urban
development and housing in foreign countries, and shall draw upon best practices
and successful models of urban development undertaken or developed by international
intergovernmental organizations, international finance institutions, recipient
countries, United States and international nongovernmental organizations, and
other appropriate entities.
(c) Content- The strategy required
by the subsection (a) shall include or address--
(1) a review
and assessment of existing or past United States programs and foreign assistance
strategies designed to increase access to basic shelter and affordable housing
in developing countries, extending affordable and equitable access to safe water,
sanitation, and solid waste removal services, and shared communal infrastructure,
such as sidewalks, roads, public lighting, enhancing security of real property
use, lease, and ownership rights;
(2) a review and assessment
of small scale, grassroots, and community-based efforts that have successfully
improved access to basic shelter and urban services;
(3) a process to define short- and long-term objectives and performance measures
by which progress should be measured;
(4) measures necessary
to improve and expand United States programs and foreign assistance strategies
in existence on the date of enactment of this Act that address urban development
issues in foreign countries;
(5) operational plans to
improve the ability of United States foreign assistance agencies to develop and
implement programs described in section 4 of this Act, including through support
for innovative international mechanisms;
(6) a plan for
integrating into the broader strategic foreign assistance plans of the Department
of State and United Stated Agency for International Development the programs and
objectives described in section 4 of this Act; and
a plan for providing long-term United States support for sustainable urban growth
and development initiatives in developing countries involving a process of regular
coordination between United States Government agencies with relevant technical
expertise or policy mandates, where appropriate, including the United States Agency
for International Development, the Department of Housing and Urban Development,
the Department of the Treasury, and the Overseas Private Investment Corporation,
and drawing upon the expertise, whenever possible, of United States-based mayors
and professionals in community, public and banking sectors, major United States
private foundations, and United Nations organizations and multilateral development
banks, among others.
(d) Report- Not later than 12 months
after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary of State shall submit
to Congress a report that describes the strategy required by subsection (a).
6. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.
There are authorized to be
appropriated for fiscal year 2012 and each subsequent fiscal year such sums as
may be necessary to carry out this Act.