S 369

1st Session

S. 369

To award posthumously a Congressional Gold Medal to Giuseppe Garibaldi, and to Recognize the Republic of Italy on the 150th Anniversary of its Unification.


February 16, 2011

Mr. ENZI introduced the following bill; which was read twice and referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs


To award posthumously a Congressional Gold Medal to Giuseppe Garibaldi, and to Recognize the Republic of Italy on the 150th Anniversary of its Unification.

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,


    The Congress finds the following:

      (1) Giuseppe Garibaldi was born on July 4, 1807, in Nice.

      (2) The Garibaldi family's involvement in coastal trade drew him to a life at sea. He was certified in 1832 as a merchant marine captain.

      (3) As a young man, Garibaldi joined the movement of La Giovine Italia (`Young Italy'), which was founded by Giuseppe Mazzini, who was an impassioned proponent of Italian unification.

      (4) Garibaldi participated in various independence struggles throughout Central and South America.

      (5) Garibaldi came to the United States, where he applied for citizenship and began learning English. He lived for a time with inventor Antonio Meucci in his home in Staten Island, New York.

      (6) The Garibaldi-Meucci Museum is a place where Italian-American heritage and culture can be celebrated, as well as where the lives of Giuseppe Garibaldi and Antonio Meucci can be remembered.

      (7) The Garibaldi-Meucci Museum was listed on the U.S. National Register of Historic Places in 1980.

      (8) In 1854, Giuseppe Garibaldi left Staten Island, New York, and returned to Italy as the commander in the conflicts of the Risorgimento, to lead military forces that would provide for the unification of Italy.

      (9) The Risorgimento's progress was eagerly followed in a United States ideologically opposed to European dynastic `tyranny'. The victory was viewed in this country as a powerful vindication of the right of the individual to political self-determination.

      (10) Giuseppe Garibaldi, who led Italy to unification in 1861, was offered a command as Major General in the Union Army by President Abraham Lincoln. Garibaldi declined, but to honor him, the 39th New York Infantry was known as `The Garibaldi Guard'. Approximately 150 of its 850 men were Italian. It fought in the Union Army from Bull Run to Appomattox.

      (11) Garibaldi was an active freemason, and thought of masonry as a network to unite men as brothers, both within nations and as members of a global community.

      (12) Garibaldi spent the rest of his life in Caprera with his wife, Francesca Armosino, and their children and family members. He died on June 2, 1882.

      (13) Giuseppe Garibaldi is one of the most symbolic figures of the Republic of Italy and a national hero. Five Italian Navy ships have been named after him, including the Italian navy's current flagship, the aircraft carrier `Giuseppe Garibaldi'.

      (14) On March 17, 2011, the Republic of Italy will officially celebrate Italy's 150th Anniversary with a series of activities across the nation of Italy, in Washington, DC, and throughout the United States, to highlight the unique partnership between Italy and the United States. As long-time allies, both nations share a common set of values, historical ties, and cultural relations that span multiple centuries.

      (15) From the arts and sciences to political thinking and beyond, the lives and ideas of great men like Andrea Palladio and Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, Antonio Meucci, Giuseppe Garibaldi, and Abraham Lincoln have inspired and enlightened one another.

      (16) Today, the legacy of immigrants is found throughout the United States in the millions of American men, women, and children of Italian descent and the community organizations such as the National Italian American Foundation and others that serve to strengthen and enrich our country.

      (17) Upon arrival to a new home, the Italian American community faced racial, social, and religious discrimination. Yet, Italian Americans persevered with hope and hard work to reach the American dream, flourished in all areas of public and economic life, and helped build our great country, while preserving their proud Italian traditions. As proud service members, they have also defended the liberty and integrity of the United States of America since the Revolutionary War, during both World Wars, the wars in Vietnam, Korea, and the Persian Gulf up until today's current conflicts.


    (a) Presentation Authorized-

      (1) IN GENERAL- The Speaker of the House of Representatives and the President pro tempore of the Senate shall make appropriate arrangements for the presentation, on behalf of Congress, of a gold medal of appropriate design in recognition of the contributions of Giuseppe Garibaldi to the Nation.

      (2) DISPLAY OF MEDAL IN CAPITOL VISITOR CENTER- The Architect of the Capitol shall arrange for the gold medal presented under this subsection to be displayed in the Capitol Visitor Center, as part of an exhibit honoring Giuseppe Garibaldi.

    (b) Design and Striking- For purposes of the presentation referred to in subsection (a), the Secretary of the Treasury (referred to in this Act as the `Secretary') shall strike a gold medal with suitable emblems, devices, and inscriptions, to be determined by the Secretary.


    The Secretary may strike and sell duplicates in bronze of the gold medal struck pursuant to section 2, under such regulations as the Secretary may prescribe, at a price sufficient to cover the cost thereof, including labor, materials, dies, use of machinery, and overhead expenses, and the cost of the gold medal.


    (a) National Medals- The medals struck under this Act are national medals for purposes of chapter 51 of title 31, United States Code.

    (b) Numismatic Items- For purposes of sections 5134 and 5136 of title 31, United States Code, all medals struck under this Act shall be considered to be numismatic items.


    (a) Authority To Use Fund Amounts- There is authorized to be charged against the United States Mint Public Enterprise Fund such amounts as may be necessary to pay for the costs of the medals struck pursuant to this Act.

    (b) Proceeds of Sale- Amounts received from the sale of duplicate bronze medals authorized under section 3 shall be deposited into the United States Mint Public Enterprise Fund.